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what is different EDDHA-Fe,DTPA-Fe,EDTA-Fe,FeSO4?

Author : Mr Lai Date : 7/28/2011 9:27:43 PM

In the market,there is a lot of Iron fertilizer .what is the different among them ?


The typical symptoms of iron deficiency in plants are chlorotic leaves. Often the veins remain green whereas the laminae are yellow, and a fine reticulate pattern develops with the darker green veins contrasting markedly with a lighter green or yellow background . In cereals, this shows up as alternate yellow and green stripes . Iron deficiency causes marked changes in the ultrastructure of chloroplasts, with thylakoid grana being absent under extreme deficiency and the chloroplasts being smaller . As iron in older leaves, mainly located in chloroplasts, is not easily retranslocated as long as the leaves are not senescent, the younger leaves tend to be more affected than the older leaves  In extreme cases the leaves may become almost white. Plant species that can modify the rhizosphere to make iron more available can be classified as iron-efficient and those that cannot as iron-inefficient. It is among the iron-inefficient species that chlorosis is most commonly observed.

Iron toxicity is not a common problem in the field, except in rice crops in Asia . It can also occur in pot experiments, and in cases of oversupply of iron salts to ornamental plants such as azaleas. The symptoms in rice, known as ‘Akagare I’ or ‘bronzing’ in Asia, include small reddish-brown spots on the leaves, which gradually extend to the older leaves. The whole leaf may turn brown, and the older leaves may die prematurely . In other species, leaves may become darker in color and roots may turn brown . In rice, iron toxicity seems to occur above 500 mg Fe kg  1  leaf dry weight

Most of the iron in plants is in the Fe(III) form . The Fe(II) form is normally below the detection level in plants .A high proportion of iron is localized within the chloroplasts of rapidly growing leaves . One of the forms in which iron occurs in plastids is as phytoferritin, a protein in which iron occurs as a hydrous Fe(III) oxide phosphate micelle , but phytoferritin is also found in the xylem and phloem . It also occurs in seeds, where it is an iron source that is degraded during germination . However, in general, concentrations of iron in seeds are lower than in the vegetative organs. 

Iron have ifferent strategies to cope with iron deficiency.

Strategy 1 plants, such as dicots and other nongraminaceous species, reduce Fe(III) in chelates by a rhizodermis-bound Fe(III)-chelate reductase and take up released Fe2 ions into the cytoplasm of root cells by a Fe2 transporter.

Strategy 2 plants, mostly grasses, release phytosiderophores that chelate Fe(III) ions and take up the phytosiderophore-Fe(III) complex by a transporter . 
A more recently postulated Strategy 3 may involve the uptake of microbial siderophores by higher plants (46), although this could be an indirect use of microbial siderophores through exchange chelation with phytosiderophores in Strategy 2 plants or through Fe
III chelate reductase in Strategy 1 plants

1 Soil Factor
The major factor affecting acquisition of iron by plants is soil pH, with high pH making iron less available and giving rise to chlorosis. Along with lime-induced chlorosis, there is a whole range of factors, including the weather, soil and crop management, and the plant genotypes themselves, that give rise to chlorosis by impeded uptake of iron

The two strategies for iron acquisition under iron deficiency stress are separated along taxonomic lines, with grasses (Gramineae, Poaceae) showing Strategy 2, and other plant families and orders, including some closely related to the grasses such as the Restionales, Eriocaules, Commelinales, and Juncales, showing Strategy 1

Formation of barely soluble iron hydroxides and oxides, particularly at high pH and in the presence of bicarbonate ions in the rooting medium, immobilizes iron supplied as inorganic salts. One way round this problem is to supply Fe(III) citrate, but this is photolabile. For these reasons the supply of iron in hydroponic culture is usually as a chelate . This can be as either FeEDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) or FeEDDHA (ethylene diamine (di o-hydroxyphenyl) acetate). Both these chelates remain stable over a range of pH values, particularly FeEDDHA, although the iron is readily available to the plants. In fact, the whole chelate molecule can be taken up at high application rates, and as this absorption is by a passive mechanism it is probably at the root zone where the lateral roots develop . However, the main uptake of iron chelates in soils or nutrient solutions at realistic application rates takes place after exchange chelation in Strategy 2 plants  and after Fe(III) reduction and formation of Fe2 in Strategy 1 plants . Interestingly, cucumber plants supplied with inorganic Fe seem to be more resistant to infection by mildew than plants supplied with FeEDDHA . Where iron deficiency occurs in acid soils, supply of Fe(II) sulfate to the soil can be effective. Thus in ornamental horticulture, azaleas and other acid-loving plants benefit from application of this salt. However, in the field, supply to citrus trees on acid soils is not effective as other ions, particularly copper, interfere with the availability of iron . Application of iron can be made as FeEDTA or FeEDDHA, but the stability of FeEDTA at least is not high in calcareous soils . FeEDDHA and FeDTPA are the only commercially available iron chelates for soil application because of their stability at high pH. The synthetic iron phosphate vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2 • 8H2O) has been used on olive trees  and in kiwi orchards